История Англии с древних времен до эпохи реставрации монархии, Часть 1, Шелестюк Е.В., 2012

История Англии с древних времен до эпохи реставрации монархии, Часть 1, Шелестюк Е.В., 2012.

   Предлагаемое пособие представляет собой первую часть курса истории Англии - от древнейших времён до эпохи Карла II. Книга знакомит читателя с особенностями исторического развития страны, политическим строем и культурной жизнью Англии указанных эпох.
Пособие составлено в соответствии с требованиями программ МГУ по страноведению и истории стран изучаемого языка и рассчитано на студентов филологических, лингвистических факультетов, факультетов иностранных языков и перевода. Оно может быть также рекомендовано к изучению студентам-регионоведам, историкам и политологам.

История Англии с древних времен до эпохи реставрации монархии, Часть 1, Шелестюк Е.В., 2012


OLIVER CROMWELL, THE LORD PROTECTOR.
In due course a Parliament was called (1654), and Oliver Cromwell, whom the people nicknamed Old Noll (Noll is a shortened form of the name Oliver), made a speech to them for three hours long, very wisely advising them what to do for the credit and happiness of the country. To keep down the more violent members, he required them to sign a recognition of what they were forbidden by "the Instrument" to do. which was, chiefly, to take the power from one single person at the head of the state or to command the army. But then, as the Parliament gave its whole time to criticising the new constitution, Cromwell soon dissolved it. Freed from all constraint, he now published ordinances merely by his own authority; his eleven major-generals, who divided the country between them and commanded the militia, saw to their execution.

As to Cromwell's foreign policy, by this time the Dutch war had ended in England's favour, but probably the greatest gain lay in the new spirit which the English admirals had created in the navy After all the Dutch, though rivals in trade, were Protestants, and Cromwell's main principle in foreign policy was to form a great European Protestant alliance against the Catholic Powers. He hardly realised that the leading state in Europe was no longer Spain, but France; and therefore he was not sorry, even while nominally at peace with Spain, to attack her possessions in the West Indies when she refused to allow freedom of trade in those parts and to grant freedom of worship to English merchants in Spanish ports. However, the expedition sent out under Penn and Venables met with no very brilliant success, except the capture of Jamaica (1655), although the result — a declaration of war by Spain was not unsatisfactory to Cromwell. To humble Spain he allied himself with France, making as a condition of his alliance, the French minister Mazarin bring pressure on the Duke of Savoy to stop the persecution of the Protestant Vaudois (a certain religious sect).

CONTENTS.
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ.
1. FIRST MEN ON THE TERRITORY OF ENGLAND.
2. HOW THE BRITONS LIVED.
3. THE COMING OF THE ROMANS.
4. ROMANS LEAVE BRITONS. THE ENGLISH INVASION.
5. ANGLO-SAXON CONQUEST. STRUGGLE BETWEEN THE TRIBES. CONVERSION TO CHRISTIANITY.
6. EDWIN, THE GREAT KING WHO FOUNDED EDINBURGH, OR EDWIN'S TOWN. BEDE, THE SCHOLAR.
7. HOW' THE FURIOUS DANES CAME DOWN UPON ENGLAND.
8. THE TROUBLED LIFE OF KING ALFRED THE GREAT. (8487-900).
9. AFTER ALFRED'S DEATH.
10. DANEGELD (9877-1016).
11. EDWARD TI IE CONFESSOR.
12. WILLI AM OF NORMANDY COMES TO ENGLAND.
13. THE LONELY CROWNING. THE CONQUEROR'S WORK.
14. SIR RICHARD'S SONG (A D. 1066).
15. THE NORMAN TIMES.
16. NORM AN AND SAXON (A. D. 1100).
17. WILLIAM RUFUS.
18. FINE SCHOLAR, OR THE LION OF JUSTICE.
19. WHEN THE WHITE SHIP WENT DOWN.
20. THE WHITE SHIP (after Charles Dickens).
21. THE CIVIL WAR.
22. WHAT CHARLES DICKENS WROTE OF THIS CIVIL WAR.
23. HENRY II.
24. THE HISTORY ABOUT THE PARENTS OF THOMAS A BECKET, THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.
25. HOW THOMAS A BECKET WAS KILLED.
26. FOUR SONS AGAINST THEIR FATHER.
27. KING HENRY'S DEATH.
28. RICHARD THE CRUSADER.
29. KING JOHN, CALLED LACKLAND.
30. HENRY III.
31. EDWARD I, CALLED LONGSHANKS.
32. THE HELPLESS KING EDWARD II.
33. ED WARD III.
34. RICHARD II, WAT TYLER WYCLIF, LOLLARDS AND CHAUCER.
35. HENRY THE FOURTH, CALLED BOLINGBROKE.
36. HENRY V.
37. HENRY VI.
38. EDWARD IV.
39. EDWARD V.
40. RICHARD 111 (1452-1485).
41. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE IN THE MIDDLE AGES.
42. CULTURE OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND.
43. HENRY VIII (1491-1547).
44. HENRY VIII PART 2.
45. SIR THOMAS MORE (1478-1535).
46. FROM THE HISTORY OF LONDON.
47. ED WARD VI (1538-1553).
48. QUEEN MARY (1516-558).
49. QUEEN ELIZABETH I (1533-1603) AND MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS (1542-1587).
50. QUEEN ELIZABETH I. PART 2.
51. RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA (TSARDOM OF RUS).
52. THE ENGLISH RENAISSANCE.
53. JAMES THE FIRST (1566-1625) AND THE GUNPOWDER PLOT.
54. JAMES THE FIRST (PART 2).
55. CHARLES THE FIRST (1600-1649).
56. CHARLES THE FIRST THE LONG PARLIAMENT AND THE CIVIL WAR.
57. THE CIVIL WAR.
58. EXECUTION OF THE KING.
59. OLIVER CROMWELL (1599-1658) AND PRINCE CHARLES'S ESCAPE.
60. OLIVER CROMWELL, THE LORD PROTECTOR.
61. CHARLES THE SECOND. THE MERRY MONARCH (1630-1685). THE RESTORATION.
62. REBUILDING OF LONDON AND OTHER EVENTS DURING THE REIGN OF CHARLES II.
63. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLAND DURING THE REFORMATION AND BOURGEOIS REVOLUTION.
The Social Structure.
Enclosures.
Rise of Industries. Trade and Finance.
English Colonialism and Principles of Foreign Policy.
Colonization of Ireland.
Trade Monopolies.
The Navigation Acts.
The East India Company in the 17-18th c. and Indian Colonization.
North American colonization.
Slave trade.
REFERENCES.
VOCABULARY PARAGRAPH BY PARAGRAPH.



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2021-09-18 23:18:34