Автор: Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik.
A Communicative Grammar of English is a new kind of grammar. In writing it, we have assumed that studying grammar, for the overseas student, makes most sense if one starts with the question 'How can I use grammar to communicate?'. Thus the main part of the book is devoted to the USES of grammar, rather than to grammatical STRUCTURE.
The book is intended primarily for the fairly advanced student, for example the first-year university student. If you are such a student you will have studied English grammar in one form or another already, but here we offer you a hew perspective on the subject, which relates grammatical structure systematically to meanings, uses and situations. In this way we hope you will improve and extend the range of your communicative skill in the language. The book also supplies the essential information about grammatical forms and structures which you will need, and can therefore be used as a general reference book or sourcebook on English grammar.
The four circles of the diagram represent a rational progression from the most limited and detailed sphere of meaning to the most inclusive. This design underlies Part Three, but we have not stuck to it too rigidly. To have done so would often have meant inconvenient repetitions of material in divergent chapters. In dealing with emotive meaning (Section C), for example, we have moved directly from the EXPRESSION of emotion to the DESCRIPTION of emotion, since the two are often interrelated, even though it might be argued that the description of emotion belongs more properly to notional meaning (Section A). The overriding consideration, in arranging the material in sections, is that of dealing with related communicative choices together.
To the student 4. To the teacher 5. Note on phonetic symbols 8
Part One Varieties of English 9
Part Two Intonation 21
Part Three Grammar in use
SECTION A: CONCEPTS ;
Referring to objects, substances and materials 26. Abstractions 29. Amount or quantity 31. Definite and indefinite meaning 35. Relations between ideas expressed by nouns 42. Restrictive and non-restrictive meaning 45. Time, tense and aspect 46. Time-when 59. Duration 62. Frequency 64. Place, direction and distance 65. Manner, means and instrument 74. Cause, reason and purpose 76. Condition and contrast 79. Degree 82. Role, standard and viewpoint 86. Comparison 87. Addition, exception and restriction 90. Subject matter: about and on 92
SECTION B: INFORMATION, REALITY AND BELIEF
Statements, questions and responses 93. Omission of information 99. Reported statements and questions 100. Denial and affirmation 103. Agreement and disagreement 106. Fact, hypothesis and neutrality 107. Degrees of likelihood 111. Attitudes to truth 115
SECTION C: MOOD, EMOTION AND ATTITUDE
Emotive emphasis in speech 117. Describing emotions 120. Volition 124. Permission and obligation 126. Influencing people 128. Friendly communications 134. Vocatives 138
SECTION D: MEANING IN CONNECTED DISCOURSE
Linking signals 139. Linking constructions 141. 'General purpose' links 143. Substitution and omission 145. Presenting and focusing information 152. Order and emphasis 158
Part Four Grammatical Compendium
How to use the Compendium 169. Adjectives 172. Adjective or adverb? 175. Adjectives as heads 176. Adverbials 177. Adverbs 182. Apposition 184. Articles 185. Auxiliary verbs 187. Case 191. Clauses 191. Cleft sentences 195. Commands 196. Comment clauses 196. Comparison 197. Complements 200. Concord 200. Coordination 203. Demonstratives 205. Determiners 205. Exclamations 210. Gender 210. Genitive 210. Interrogatives 213. Introductory it 215. Introductory there 216. Irregular verbs 218. Main verbs 222. Nationality words 224. Negation 226. Nominal clauses 228. Noun phrases 231. Number 232. Numerals 233. Objects 236. Operators 236. Passives 237. Personal and reflexive pronouns 239. Phrasal and prepositional verbs 243. Plurals 246. Postmodifires 248. Premodifires 251. Prepositional phrases 253. Prepositions and prepositional adverbs 254. Pronouns 255. Pronunciation of endings 256. Proper nouns 257. Quantifires 259. Questions 263. Reciprocal pronouns 265. Relative clauses 265. Sentences 268. Some-words and any-words 269. Spelling changes 271. Subjects 273. Subjunctives 274. Subordination 274. Verb patterns 277. Verb phrases 283. Word-classes 287
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