Further steps in text analysis, Козлова Л.А., Шевченко Л.Л., 2018

Further steps in text analysis, Козлова Л.А., Шевченко Л.Л., 2018.

   Настоящее пособие предназначено для занятий со студентами V курса по лингвостилистическому анализу и интерпретации текстов различных жанров: эссе, биографии, автобиографии, короткого рассказа, публичной речи, научного текста и поэзии. С учетом того, что начальные навыки лингвостилистического анализа закладываются на IV курсе, данное пособие ставит своей целью расширение знаний и закрепление навыков интерпретации текстов различных жанров, выявление жанровых особенностей текста и тех стилистических приемов, которые формируют в своей совокупности идиостиль конкретного автора.

Further steps in text analysis, Козлова Л.А., Шевченко Л.Л., 2018


The Origin and the Main Types of Essays.
The word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, “to try” or “to attempt”. In English essay first meant “a trial” or “an attempt”, and this is still an alternative meaning. The Frenchman Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) was the first author to describe his work as essays; he used the term to characterize these as “attempts” to put lus thoughts adequately into writing. Inspired in particular by the works of Plutarch, a translation of whose Oeuvres morales (Moral works) into French had just been published by Jacques Amyot, Montaigne began to compose his essays in 1572; the first edition, entitled Essais, was published in two volumes in 1580. For the rest of his life he continued revising previously published essays and composing new ones. Francis Bacon’s essays, published in book form in 1597, 1612, and 1625, were the first works in English that described themselves as essays. Ben Jonson first used the word essayist in English in 1609, according to the Oxford English Dictionary.

Other English essayists included Robert Burton (1577-1640) and Sir Thomas Browne (1605-1682). In Italy, Baldassare Castiglione wrote about courtly manners in his essay 11 libro del cortegiano. In the 1600s, the Jesuit Baltasar Gracidn wrote about the theme of wisdom. During the Age of Enlightenment, essays were a favoured tool of polemicists who aimed at convincing readers of their position. In the 1700s and 1800s, Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public. In the 20th century, a number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in ait and culture by using essays (e.g., T.S. Eliot). Whereas some essayists used essays for strident political themes, Robert Louis Stevenson and Willa Cather wrote lighter essays. Virginia Woolf, Edmund Wilson, and Charles du Bos wrote literary criticism essays.

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ.
Introduction.
PART I. THE LANGUAGE OF NONFICTION: A LITERARY ESSAY.
The Origin and the Main Types of Essays.
Virginia Woolf. The Common Reader. How Should One Read a Book.
Topics for the Essay Based on “How Should One Read a Book”.
A Few Hints on Essay Writing.
Lewis Carroll by Virginia Woolf.
St. Jean de Crevecoeur. What is an American?.
Topics for the Argumentative Essay Based on “What is an American?”.
Samples of Student’s Essays.
What Is a Japanese. The Merits and Demerits of Stereotypes.
Where Bread Is There’s A Fatherland.
What Is An Ossetian Or Blood Is Thicker Than Water.
Ralph Waldo Emerson. Self-Reliance.
Laurie Lee. Appetite.
Biography and Autobiography as Nonfiction Genres.
Benjamin Franklin. Autobiography.
Evelyn Waugh. General Conversation: Myself.
Margaret Atwood. Great Unexpectations.
Essays for Self-Guided Analysis.
H.G. Wells. Ellis Island.
Carl Sandburg. A Lincoln Preface.
Wystan Hugh Auden. Postscript: The Almighty Dollar.
Susan Sontag. Beauty.
PART II. THE LANGUAGE OF PUBLIC SPEAKING.
The Main Features of Publicistic Style.
Analysing Speeches.
Analysing Political Speeches.
Donald Trump. The Crossroads In Our History.
Theodore Roosevelt. The Man with the Muck-rake.
Speeches for Self-Guided Analysis.
Margaret Thatcher. Iron Lady Speech.
Donald Trump. Inaugural Address.
Sheryl Sandberg. Address to the Class of 2012 at HBS.
PART III. THE LANGUAGE OF SCIENCE.
The Main Features of Scientific Style.
Anna Wierzbicka. English: Meaning and Culture. English as a Cultural Universe.
Steven Arthur Pinker. The Language Instinct. How the Mind Creates Language.
Scientific Texts for Self-Guided Analysis.
Steven Pinker. The Language Instinct. How the Mind Creates language.
Geoffrey Leech. Semantics. The Study of Meaning.
Robin Lakoff. You Are What You Say.
PART IV. THE LANGUAGE OF FICTION: A SHORT STORY.
The Art of Reading and Analysing a Story.
James Joyce. Eveline.
Oscar Wilde. The Model Millionaire.
Katherine Mansfield. A Cup of Tea.
Somerset Maugham. The Happy Man.
O. Henry. The Cop and the Anthem.
Ernest Hemingway. Cat in the Rain.
Stories for Self-Guided Analysis.
Katherine Mansfield. Honeymoon.
Kate Chopin. The Story of an Hour.
Ray Bradbury. In a Season of Calm Weather.
Peter Mayle. The Genetic Effects of Two Thousand Years of Foie Gras.
PART V. THE LANGUAGE OF POETRY.
Analysing Poetry.
Sir Walter Raleigh. Even Such Is Time.
John Donne. Holy Sonnets. Sonnet XIII.
Robert Herrick. To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time.
William Blake. A Poison Tree.
Edgar Allan Poe. Alone.
Emily Dickinson. There is no Frigate like a Book.
Christina Rossetti. Up-hill.
William Butler Yeats. For Anne Gregory.
Edwin Arlington Robinson. Richard Cory.
Robert Frost. Gathering Leaves.
Edward Estlin Commings. Pity this Busy Monster, Manunkind.
Dylan Thomas. Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night.
Dorothy Parker. Frustration.
Allen Ginsberg. A Supermarket in California.
Tom Clark. Poem.
Poems for Self-Guided Analysis.
Selected Bibliography.



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