Энциклопедия Алгоритмов, Encyclopedia of Algorithms, Ming-Yang Kao

Энциклопедия Алгоритмов, Encyclopedia of Algorithms, Ming-Yang Kao.

   The Encyclopedia of Algorithms aims to provide the researchers, students, and practitioners of algorithmic research with a mechanism to efficiently and accurately find the names, definitions, key results, and further readings of important algorithmic problems.
The work covers a wide range of algorithmic areas, and each algorithmic area is covered by a collection of entries. An encyclopedia entry is an in-depth mini-survey of an algorithmic problem and is written by an expert researcher. The entries for an algorithmic area are compiled by an area editor to survey the representative results in that area and can form the core materials of a course in the area.

Энциклопедия Алгоритмов, Encyclopedia of Algorithms, Ming-Yang Kao

Caches, Models and Cache Analysis.
Modern computers have hierarchical memory which consists of registers, one or more levels of caches, main memory and external memory devices such as disks and tapes. Memory size increases but the speed decreases with distance from the CPU. Hierarchical memory is designed to improve the performance of algorithms by exploiting temporal and spatial locality in data accesses.

Caches are modeled as follows. A cache has m blocks each of which holds В data elements. The capacity of the cache is M = mB. Data is transferred between one level of cache and the next larger and slower memory in blocks of В elements. A cache is organized as s = ml a sets where each set consists of a blocks. Memory at address xB, referred to as memory block x can only be placed in a block in set x mod s. If a = 1 the cache is said to be direct mapped and if a = s it is said to he fully associative.

If memory block x is accessed and it is not in cache then a cache miss occurs and the data in memory block x is brought into cache, incurring a performance penalty. In order to accommodate block x, it is assumed that the least recently used (LRU) or the first used (FIFO) block from the cache set x mod s is evicted and this is referred to as the replacement strategy. Note that a block may be evicted from a set even though there maybe unoccupied blocks in other sets.

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