Kotava, Official complete grammar, Version IV.03, May 2016, Huchelmann A., 2018

Kotava, Official complete grammar, Version IV.03, May 2016, Huchelmann A., 2018.

   Kotava is not a natural language, but a constructed one whose aim is to serve as an auxiliary language between peoples and cultures. To respect and promote the fundamental principle of absolute cultural and philosophical neutrality, it was conceived under an "a priori" logic, notably by not drawing its lexicon from any existing language, past or present, but inventing it in its entirety, and using common grammatical and expressive concepts shared by most of the inhabitants of our Earth, very easy to implement. One of its essential dimensions is also the possibilities of evolution and development in relation to its future speakers.

Kotava, Official complete grammar, Version IV.03, May 2016, Huchelmann A., 2018


SUBSTANTIVES.
A: Gender marking [yoltoxi].
In Kotava, there is no grammatical notion of gender, male, female or any other. All nouns are indeterminate and used as such. Where it is necessary to specify or insist on the natural sex of a human or animal being, specific gender suffixes may be used, "-ya" for females and "-ye" for males.

B: Euphonic agreement [mamanyara].
Even if Kotava does not have semantic gender, the notion of "euphonic agreement" holds a great deal of importance.

All determinatives (adjectives, determiners, numerals, participles), some pronouns (e. g. possessive) and general suffixes are subject to this rule, according to which they must be in euphonic agreement with the noun (or pronoun) they refer to, i. e. have a similar euphonic ending.

CONTENTS.
Preamble: [abdiwonaks].
Chap. I: Linguistic overview [avomaveem].
Chap. II: Historical evolution of Kotava [towarizvot va Kotava].
Phonology: [mamopaf bolk].
Chap. I: Kotava alphabet [abava].
Chap. II: The 2011 reform [fabdura ba 2011].
Chap. III: Stress [bloskara].
Orthography: [suteraf bolk].
Chap. I: Graphical peculiarities [suteraptaceem].
Chap. II: Transcriptions of proper nouns [remsutera va pilkayolt].
Chap. III: Use of capital letters [unera va eltayap].
Chap. IV: Use of punctuation marks [unera va tcala].
Grammatical system: [pulviropaf bolk].
Chap. I: Morphological chart [tazukak].
Chap. II: Substantives [yolt].
Chap. III: Verbs [gray].
Chap. IV: Determinatives [gotuxa].
Chap. V: Pronouns [ikayolt].
Chap. VI: Adverbs [muge].
Chap. VII: Interjections [divieks].
Chap. VIII: Prepositions [yaz].
Chap. IX: Conjunctions [skedaxa].
Chap. X: Affixes [osta].
Chap. XI: Assertive demonstrativeness [ruyesa danedira].
Chap. XII: Compounding [ponara].
Chap. XIII: Word order [ravlemvura].
Chap. XIV: Principles of expression [muxarindeem].
Annexes [yona notraca].



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