American English Grammar, An Introduction, Seth R. Katz, 2020

American English Grammar, An Introduction, Seth R. Katz, 2020.

   American English Grammar introduces students to American English in detail, from parts of speech, phrases, and clauses to punctuation and explaining (and debunking) numerous “rules of correctness,” integrating its discussion of Standard American grammar with thorough coverage of the past sixty years’ worth of work on African American English and other ethnic and regional non-Standard varieties. The book’s examples and exercises include 500 real-world sentences and longer texts, drawn from newspapers, film, song lyrics, and online media as well as from Mark Twain, Stephen King, academic texts, translations of the Bible, poetry, drama, children’s literature, and transcribed conversation and TV and radio shows. Based on twenty years of classroom testing and revision, American English Grammar will serve as a classroom text or reference that teaches students how to think and talk not only about the mechanics of sentences but also about the deep and detailed soul and nuance of the most widely used language in human history.

American English Grammar, An Introduction, Seth R. Katz, 2020

Parts of Speech and Their Phrases.
Traditional grammar books begin by defining what are called the "parts of speech”: classes of words, defined by the kinds of meanings they are used to convey. We will stick with this meaning-based (or “semantic”) approach to defining classes of words: it is also the approach that dictionaries commonly use. and sometimes the dictionary will be a helpful reference for figuring out which part-of-speech label to assign to a word or phrase. But we will add two other ways of thinking about classes of words. The first of these I have already mentioned: along with the semantic definitions, the parts of speech can be defined by the function of a word or phrase in the context of a sentence. We can take a single word (e.g. play) to provide a clear example:
play functioning as a verb: I play baseball every day.
play functioning as a noun: She made a good play.

We can identify play in the first sentence as a verb (lexical category) because it is filling a particular functional slot in the sentence, performing a sentence function that we identify with verbs: naming the action performed by a subject (I) while filling the role of “head” in the predicate. Likewise, in the second sentence, we can identify play as a noun because it is filling the slot—performing the function—of direct object—naming the thing acted upon—a sentence function we identify with nouns. NPs. and other nominals.

Language Variety and Grammar.
The Point of the Book.
A Summary of the Book.
Key Points.
A Guide to Non-Standard American Varieties.
Abbreviations and Conventions.
1 Sentences; Parts of Speech and Their Phrases.
2 Nouns (N) and Noun Phrases (NP).
3 Prepositions (P) and Prepositional Phrases (PP).
4 Adjectives (Adj) and Adjective Phrases (AdjP); Determiners (D) and Determiner Phrases (DP).
5 Pronouns (ProN) and Pronoun Phrases (ProNP).
6 Verbs (V).
7 Verb Phrases (VP).
8 Adverbs (Adv) and Adverb Phrases (AdvP).
9 Conjunctions (Conj).
10 Clauses.
11 Nominals, Adjectivals, and Adverbials.
12 Non-Finite Verb Phrases.
13 A Grand Review Exercise.

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