Английский язык для психологов, Никошкова Б.В., 2003

Английский язык для психологов, Никошкова Б.В., 2003.

Пособие состоит из восьми уроков, построенных вокруг оригинальных текстов по общей психологии, лексических и грамматических упражнений к ним, а также упражнений на выработку навыков устной речи по темам уроков. В «Приложении» даются восемь текстов, близких по тематике к основным текстам пособия, которые можно использовать в качестве дополнительного или домашнего чтения. Пособие рекомендуется для начального этапа обучения работе над специальной психологической литературой с целью формирования у студентов необходимой для этого лексико-грамматической базы.

Английский язык для психологов, Никошкова Б.В., 2003

Analysis of Consciousness.
The formal launching of psychology as a separate science occurred in 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt opened his Psychological Institute at the University of Leipzig. Wundt was a physiologist and philosopher who had made contributions to both of these fields. In addition to his experiments in psychology, he was to continue making important contributions to philosophy. The new movement was not so much a revolt against mental philosophy as an attempt to gel psychology out of an impasse, by utilizing the experimental method of physiology and physics. No science is, in an absolute sense, independent of philosophy. Psychology has never completely broken away from philosophy and the two disciplines will always have much in common, since scientific endeavours psychological or otherwise, arc preceded and followed by speculation. Today there is a flourishing branch of philosophy, the philosophy of science, which critically examines the aims, methods and conclusions of all sciences.

Scientific psychology al first took over the same apparatus and methods with which physiologists and physicists had been investigating behaviour and experience. Wry soon, however, psychologists were finding new problems and devising apparatus and procedures of their own. Most of the early psychological experiments dealt with experience. There was only incidental interest in a scientific study of behaviour as such: that is. in what persons said and did. Individual observers were trained to attend to and describe their experience while the experimenter made various changes in light, sound and other external conditions. He also made experimental changes in physiological conditions (fatigue, hunger, thirst). The method of attending to and describing experiences under known external and internal conditions was called experimental introspection.

The chief aim of Wundt and his students was to discover the ingredients of conscious experience. It was claimed, that it could be analyzed into its elements (sensations and so on). Especially there was an effort to discover the relations between stimuli, physiological structures. and particular types of experience. Because of emphasis upon conscious experience, psychology was at that time designated the science of consciousness.

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