English for history students, Advanced stage, Седелкина Л.Н., Яковлева Е.Б., Миньяр-Белоручева А.П., 1988

English for history students, Advanced stage, Седелкина Л.Н., Яковлева Е.Б., Миньяр-Белоручева А.П., 1988.

Фрагмент из книги:
Britain has been many centuries in the making. The Romans conquered most of Britain, but were unable to subdue the fiercely independent tribes in the west and far north. Further waves of invaders followed: Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Vikings and Normans. All these contributed to the mixture we call English.^or many centuries this country was known simply as England, and this historical study must deal first with the development of England. To the west and north, Wales and Scotland fought for their independence so passionately that it took hundreds of years to bring them under English domination.

English for history students, Advanced stage, Седелкина Л.Н., Яковлева Е.Б., Миньяр-Белоручева А.П., 1988


THE BIRTH OP INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM.
Modern industrial capitalism was produced by the industrial revolution, which transformed commodity production by developing factories using steam power and machinery for mass production. The basic industries for this development were coal and iron. In the middle of the eighteenth century the production of iron in Britain was falling steadily, as its forests were being used up to provide charcoal for smelting the ore. Britain was actually importing iron from Sweden and Russia. In 1760 a revolutionary advance was made in technique; the use of coke for smelting iron, quietly developed for many years, was revealed to the world as a commercial possibility in a large new ironworks. The future of the iron industry, ani of coal, was assured. In the course of developing these industries new inventions led to power-driven machinery, factory production and industrial capitalism. 1760 may therefore be reasonably taken as the starting point for this new era.

The use of coke immediately called for an increase in the output of coal, which waa already rising to meet the demand for domes tic fuel in the growing towns because of the shortage of wood. Deep mines were needed to raise output, and this meant better ventilatio and pumping machinery.

Оглавление.
The British people.
The seeds of change.
The birth of industrial capitalism.
Peculiarities of British imperialism.
Chartism.
Marxism-Leninism on the character of the workers movement in England.
Old and new trade unionism.
The first world war.
Revolt on the Clyde.
World Crisis. Fascism and war (1931 -1945).
A new stage in the development of British trade unionism.
The class struggle of parliamentary democracy.
The Irish question.
The question of Keynesism.



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